New features after GSOC19

By Jorge Martínez Garrido

GSOC 2019 Edition has almost finished. All along this last three months lots of issues where solved, poliastro 0.13 was raised, new features were applied and of course, new issues and bugs appeared.

The objective of this post is just to collect all the implementations that have been merged during this GSOC and also those that are still required to be done.


  • [x] Lambert minor issues were fixed.
  • [x] Lambert as Maneuver instances.
  • [x] Docs and notebook on previous implementations.
  • [x] Trail plotting option.
  • [x] Fix minor issues on CI and tests.
  • [x] New twobody propagators.
  • [x] Maneuver fixes: Hohmann time to pericenter and units bug.
  • [x] Atmospheric models: COESA62 and COESA76.

A detailed description and link to the code can be found in the following lines.

Izzo Algorithm minor errors

Some errors appeared in the minimum transfer time for the Izzo algorithm. After a little bit of debugging, Juanlu found that time-of-flight equation that does not need external computation of one of the terms. I was asked to write some unit tests.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Lambert becomes Maneuver

After the logic in Izzo's algorithm was fixed it was time to create a Maneuver.lambert(ss_origin, ss_final). Finally, a really simple and powerful implementation was achieved!


ss_earth = Orbit.from_body_ephem(Earth, epoch=LAUNCH)
ss_mars = Orbit.from_body_ephem(Mars, epoch=ARRIVAL)

man_lambert = Maneuver.lambert(ss_earth, ss_mars)
ss_trans, ss_target = ss_earth.apply_maneuver(man_lambert, intermediate=True)

Link to the corresponding pull request

Document Lambert's maneuver

It was necessary to update some of the Jupyter notebooks that made use of the previous * raw* implementation of the algorithm.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Lambert's multirevolution example

After #680 it was even easier to work with Lambert transfers. Therefore, I decided to add some more documentation on the multi revolution problem. A custom explanatory image was designed and finally merge in the following pull request.


Link to the corresponding pull request

Add trail plotting option

To give a more dynamical perspective to the user when working with StaticOrbitPlotter() instances this feature was proposed. Initial implementation was not merged but improved by mentor Juanlu. Thank you so much for your help!


Link to the corresponding pull request

Add ipywidgets to tox -e images

This is one of the minor issues that appear while coding. It was really easy to solve.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Update tests to astropy 3.2

Some of the tests were coded by hard, meaning that they are subjected to updates on NASA's JPL database. Therefore, when astropy 3.2 was released it was necessary to update some of them.

Link to the corresponding pull request

New powerful twobody propagators

While working with #475 I decided to implement a new propagator to compare the solutions against the available ones in poliastro. However, I became interested in Kepler's problem and decided to collect and implement all possible algorithms I was able to find. Following routines were added:

  • mikkola:
  • markley: (this is the previously called kepler_improved)
  • pimienta: link to the paper
  • gooding:
  • danby:

Link to the corresponding pull request

Orbit method change_attractor

When retrieving orbits from external sources, such for example Jupyter's moons by making use of Orbit.from_sbdb they were retrieved with an ICRS frame. However, if a user wants to study their orbit around Jupyter it was necessary to implement some Orbit method.

The change_attractor orbit solved this issue. It checked when and Orbit instance was under or out its attractor's SOI.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Hohmann time to pericenter

In all books, Hohmann maneuvers are explained from the PQW orbital frame, with the satellite at an initial perfect circular orbit and true anomaly equal to zero. This may not be the case in the real world, since the initial orbit may be elliptical and the satellite could be in another position rather than at periapsis. If this was the case, the orbit was propagated by force without notifying the user and this time was not taken into account.

Finally, this was solved by keeping the forced propagation and adding that time_to_anomaly in the corresponding Maneuver instance.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Add atmospheric models

After #694 was opened, it was necessary to implement a better atmospheric model instead of using the ISA one. Some models such as COESA62, COESA76 were merged in the master code after 0.13 was released. However, previous models were not fully implemented and just worked under 100km geometric altitude.

Link to the corresponding pull request

Reformat on atmospheres

After more research on the topic, I was finally able to implement COESA76 up to 1000km instead of 86km. A 4th order polynomial was used but this required hard-coding lots of coefficients.

That was the reason behind the reformat of the poliastro.atmosphere module. By making use of astropy generated .dat files it was possible to clean up last implementations and make them more readable.

Link to the corresponding pull request


Comparing my Open Astronomy proposal with the previous implementations following features are still required to be developed:

  • [ ] SS and Earth-Moon barycenters are still required to be developed.
  • [ ] New orbit creation such us from_TLE
  • [ ] More plotting capabilities such us different attractors in the same figure or groundtracks.
  • [ ] Verner78 ODE method may be implemented in Scipy following same idea for the DOP853.

My experience as GSOC student

During the last months, I have learned a lot of new things. Although most of them are related to scientific content (astrodynamics in particular), others refer to Python language such as packaging, docs, CI, version release...

It was a great experience working during this summer with poliastro and Open Astronomy people. Juanlu has been an amazing mentor, answering almost in time all my questions. He understood that some topics were a little bit complicated and required more time than expected to be studied and applied to the code.

A total of 5299 lines of code were added while 2620 were removed. But contributions will not stop there! The Python package poliastro shows an amazing future in computational astrodynamics and I want to be part of that future. For sure I will keep opening issues, pull requests and learning lots of things. Thank you all very much.

Per Python ad astra!